The magnet has improved magnetic properties running in one direction which is determined by the manufacturing process, the so-called preferred direction.


physical units which are based on three basic units of centimetres, grams, and seconds,
among others these also include the outdated magnetic units of gauss, maxwell and oerstedt.

permanent magnetic assemblies

represents a combination of permanent magnetic materials, magnetically soft flux-conducting components and non-magnetic components, usually with the target of bundling the magnetic flux within a defined operating area, e.g. an adherent surface, an annular passage or in free space in trapping systems.

demagnetization curve

is the course of the hysteresis loop in the second quadrant – the most important part of the loop, since the operating point of every permanent magnet is located in this part of the loop.

hysteresis loop

the functional connection between the induction B and the magnetization J on the one hand and the magnetic field strength H on the other, B = f(H) bzw. J = f(H).

depending on the width of the hysteresis loop, one can distinguish between magnetically soft, semi-hard and hard materials (the latter is referred to as a permanent magnet)


the magnet has the same magnetic properties in all spatial directions, in other words it has no preferred direction

 coercive field strength HcB bzw. HcJ in [kA/m bzw. Oe]

two marked points on the demagnetization curve which are a measure for the resistance of the magnet to demagnetizing external or internal magnetic fields

 magnetic properties Br, (BH)max, HcB und HcJ

minimum values as determined in-house or by the material standard DIN IEC 60404-8-1 for the remanence Br, the maximum energy product (BH)max as well as the coercive field strength HcB and HcJ

maximum energy product (BH)max, [kJ/m³ bzw. MGOe]

point marked on the demagnetization curve in which the product from B and H is the maximum (largest inscribed rectangle below the curve); in practice the operating point should lie near the (BH)max point in order to achieve the best possible utilization of the given permanent magnetic material

 Remanenz Br [mT bzw. G]

point marked on the demagnetization curve, residual induction in the closed magnetic cycle after switching off the outer magnetizing field strength

 SI base unit

physical units of measurement from the international system of units based on the units of metre, kilogram, second and ampere

 rod-shaped crystallization

the crystallization form achieved by applying a targeted release of heat during the casting process, usually long, parallel, pin-shaped crystals